Placenta an omaly (III) - placenta abruptio

Placenta an omaly (III) - placenta abruptio

  Autor NN Team Data: 16.11.2007

Placenta an omaly (III) - placenta abruptio

During a normal pregnancy placenta is attached by the uterine wall and only after fetus has left mother uterus detaches in order to be eliminated.

But in some cases, fortunately pretty rare, placenta detaches before birth, usually in the third trimester of pregnancy, going to what doctors call placenta abruptio or placenta detachment. The detachment can be totally or partially, but because placenta is the one which transports the oxygen to
fetus, in both cases its detachment puts in danger his life.
For now doctors didn't manage to understand what really cause the placenta detachment, but was noticed that it appears the most often to women with hypertension (chronic or induced by the pregnancy), heart diseases or diabetes, to women who smoke or consume alcohol.

Old age of the mother, multiple pregnancies and a placenta detachment to a previous pregnancy can be risk factors. Also, placenta can detach if it is inserted on a scar of the uterus. Placenta abruptio can also have exterior causes, like a strike suffered by the mother (in the case of falling down of car crash).

Unfortunately, mother can't do anything in order to prevent or impede placenta detachment, but she can eliminate the risk factors: hypertension, tobacco, alcohol, drugs and to go to the doctor every time when she suspects that fetus could be in danger.

The most frequent symptom is vaginal bleeding, which can be light or abundant, according to the detachment seriousness. Blood can be dark red or light red, according to the place where detachment produced.

Also, mother will feel abdominal pain, uterine contractions and uterus will become sensitive and painful. If it detaches more than half of the placenta, bleeding will be abundant, heart beat rhythm will accelerate for mother and changes will be observed in fetus movement. Doctor will also notice a change in fetus heart beats rhythm.

Sometimes blood gathers in the place between placenta and uterine wall, so it is possible that mother doesn't notice any bleeding. That's why it is important to go to the doctor if you have the other symptoms: cramps or contractions, back pains, fetus movement change.

Medical control consists in evaluating the contractions and the way in which fetus respond to them. An echography also can be done. Though, only half of the cases of placenta abruptio can be diagnosed like this. Some cases are diagnosed only after birth begins or even after birth.

If placenta detachment is small, your doctor will recommend rest in bed in order to stop bleeding, and after few days mother can resume her normal activities.

If detachment is middle, mother should stay in hospital in order the doctor monitor her state and fetus state. If she lost a lot of blood, she will make transfusion. Carefully will be monitored fetus heart beats, and if any problem appear, doctor can cause birth.

Totally detachment of placenta is a medical emergency. Usually doctor will make caesarian surgery if he thinks fetus is in danger. In very rare cases, placenta abruptio goes to fetus death.

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