Emotional-Affective Development at the Age of 1-3 Years

Emotional-Affective Development at the Age of 1-3 Years

  Autor Claudia Gabriela Dumitriu, psychologist Data: 10.07.2009

Emotional-Affective Development at the Age of 1-3 Years

A newborn's need of affection is satisfied through the relationships with the adults. Affectively, in the first months of life the child is closely tied to the mother, and can be easily influenced by her emotions. Thus we see studying the behaviour of babies, as if the mother is agitated, afraid, or uncertain of how she should take care of the child, the child is also restless and crying a lot. As a consequence of this behaviour, the mother worries increasingly, the child's condition worsens, and the relationship turns into a vicious circle. For this reason, the peace and safety of the mother's feelings are very important in this period in order that child's affection basis to develop harmoniously.

Since the age of 1 year, child's emotional state is becoming better, depending on the extent to which his needs are met. Given that the child does not feel deprivation or frustration, he develops a state of psychological comfort which helps to its future development. Affective development and the need tobelong are facilitated at this stage by the way in which the mother and other family members respond to the needs of child's nutrition, physical comfort, affection, protection and safety.
Around 18 months, the emotional resonance of the child grows, he becomes responsive, able to decode the emotional states of close people and react to them. If the mother cries, the child begins to cry and he becomes sad if the mother has a state of melancholy or joyful if the mother is happy. Around a year and a half, the attachment to mother or person consistently in charge of the child care becomes obvious, in that it is totally hooked. Jealousy effects occur when the mother pays attention to someone else, including his father, or not paying enough attention to the child. Timidity towards people who are not part of his universe begins to manifest in the behavioural plan, he learns to express sympathy or antipathy towards others. Around two years he begins to show interest and pleasure regarding activities which cause him joy, he smiles to compliments, has bouts of generosity towards people he likes. In this period increases the interest in the father, who becomes a model for the child as the first sign of getting out of the mother dependence state by acquiring autonomy. In this period also it is obvious the separation anxiety to the mother or the attachment person, which may take sometimes dramatic forms. After 2 years of age, the child goes through a period of oppositions and aggressiveness in response to frustrating situations he is passing by. It is the beginning of their identity formation and in the process of self- knowledge and knowledge of the environment, he faces, as expected, a number of prohibitions and restrictions. In this situation he expresses his aggressive outbursts - he trundles, yells, hits. His relationship with adults sometimes gets the features of a fight for autonomy that has to be approached gently by the parents to facilitate for the child a more complete exploration of the environment, protecting him from danger, however.
The signs of attachment are obvious, at this stage the child makes efforts to conserve the emotional relationship with the mother, looking at the same time protection against threats. If a stranger comes to visit, or he feels the danger, he flees to his mother's arms, or hides behind her. In this way anxiety is manifested towards foreigners.
Manifestations of attachment are becoming more numerous, the child smiles or caress the loved ones, showing his affection, but he can also use the attachment as a tool of emotional blackmail, making the upset when he is reproved or refused a favour.
The desire of affection grows and gains symbolic forms- the child carries out actions designed to attract the esteem and admiration of foreigners. An expression of imaginative psycho affective availability is, during this period, the game, being an activity carried out spontaneously for pleasure, and filled with satisfaction. Playing with other children, he learns to express emotions, to cooperate, to postpone, developing the capacity for cooperation and improving his resistance to frustration.
He learns increasingly more, in the relationship with others, to perform those actions that bring him the psychological wellbeing. The parental axis has an important role in child's affection development, being important in this respect, the relations between parents and how they express their emotions and feelings, the measure in which they manifest liberty in their expression. In a family with rigid interpersonal relationships, where parents are used to hide what they feel, not to manifest themselves, the child will learn that there is something wrong to be happy, exuberant, or to show your sadness or tears. Where adults feel free to display their entire range of feelings, the child will grow with the belief that what he feels is important, and he will know how to express emotionally accordingly.



Read the English version of this article: Emotional-Affective Development at the Age of 1-3 Years