Optional Vaccines for Children

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Optional Vaccines for Children

  Autor NN Team Data: 16.04.2009

Optional Vaccines for Children

In addition to vaccines that are part of the national immunisation program, any parent can ask for a fee, a number of other vaccines, depending on your preference and child's health. Most parents choose to do to their child the hepatitis A, MMR, influenza, pneumococcal and anti varicella vaccines.

Hepatitis A vaccine
Produces immunisation against hepatitis A and is indicated especially to children exposed to this virus. That is institutionalized children, haemophiliac children, infected with hepatitis B or C or other liver disease at risk of chronicity. The vaccine only provides protection against hepatitis A. Hepatitis B, C and E viruses are not targeted. It is administered intramuscularly, beginning at 12 months. For children up to 18 years it is done a paediatric dose of 0.5 ml, which will be repeated in six months. Booster doses are done at every 10 years.

The vaccine is well tolerated by the organism, and any side effects are mild and last a short period of time, and disappear without treatment.

Contraindications are common.

MMR vaccine
It is a combined vaccine that provides protection against three diseases: measles, mumps and rubella. It is indicated in particular for children living in institutions. The substance is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously, starting at 12 months. To the children that are part of communities, immunisation is done at 9 months, but in this case a booster dose will be made at 6 months after the first. Otherwise, the first booster dose is made between 3 and 6 years.
The vaccine is well tolerated by children. Possible side effects occur at 5 days after immunization and may consist of mild fever, rash, mild respiratory symptoms.
Contraindications are: congenital or acquired immunodeficiency, recent treatment with immunoglobulin, egg protein allergy.

Influenza Vaccine
It contains every other season strains of influenza, according to WHO recommendations. Protection against influenza virus starts at 2 weeks after vaccination, so it is recommended that this be done before the flu season, according to medical advice. It is indicated for children over 6 months with increased risk of complications. This is especially of children with chronic illnesses (asthma, heart disease, diabetes, kidney failure, HIV). You can also make it to children who have not an increased risk of complications but have in the family someone at high risk of complications (elderly, chronically ill persons). For the aspirin given to children with viral infection can trigger Reye's syndrome, the flu shot can be taken to children under long- term aspirin therapy.
The vaccine is made intramuscularly or subcutaneously and the dose depends on the age: between 6 and 35 months are given 0.25 ml, and after 36 months, 0.5 ml. In children less than 8 years who have not previously been vaccinated are given a second dose one month after the first. As side effects fever, headache, respiratory symptoms can be observed which disappear quickly without treatment.

Varicella vaccine
Provides protection against varicella-zoster virus and is indicated for all children and children after the age of nine months, but especially to those at increased risk of serious complications (children with leukaemia, HIV and other serious chronic diseases, immunosuppressive therapy, etc.). The recommended dose is 0.5 ml, but the vaccination schedule depends on the child's age. Until 12 years there is a single dose and after this age there are needed two doses at an interval of at least 6 weeks. Additional doses may be used in children at high risk of complications of varicella. As side effects fever and rash are rarely seen.

Pneumococcal vaccine
Provides 90% protection against pathogens that trigger pneumococcal infections. It is used in children older than two years, with increased risk. Children with increased risk of developing pneumococcal infections and their complications are those with chronic illnesses or immunocompromised (HIV infected). All it takes is a single dose which is repeated five years earlier. Exceptions are the very children at risk of illness and the treatment of immunosuppression. Potential adverse reactions are fatigue, local pain, fever, headaches.

Hib vaccine
Provides protection against Haemophilus influenzae type B, a pathogen agent that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis and other serious illnesses. It offers protection against other pathogens that can lead to meningitis or pneumonia. It can be made to all children over 2 months and is especially recommended to those who are at increased risk. It can be administered subcutaneously, but intramuscular administration is recommended. If he is administered at the same time with other vaccines, injections will be made in different anatomical areas. The dose is 0.5 ml and the schedule depends on the age. Between 2 and 6 months, 3 doses at 1-2 months followed by a booster at 12 months. Between six months and one year are made two doses every 1-2 months, followed by a booster at 12 months. Between one and five years there is a single dose without booster.



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